Matthysse will have ‘no respect’ as he aims to beat Pacquiao A red-hot Edgar Charcos, a squandered lead, and a collapsed offense became the narrative of the Knights’ opening game loss to Perpetual Help in the NCAA Season 94 men’s basketball tournament.But instead of sulk, Napa and the Knights are using the setback as a learning experience.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSAfter winning title, time for LA Tenorio to give back to Batangas folkSPORTSTim Cone still willing to coach Gilas but admits decision won’t be ‘simple yes or no’“Time to move on, we’ll just focus on our next game so we can’t allow the same mistakes from happening again,” said Napa in Filipino Friday at Filoil Flying V Centre.READ: NCAA: Perpetual rallies to close out Letran in thriller ‘High crimes and misdemeanors’: Trump impeachment trial begins Trump assembles a made-for-TV impeachment defense team “I didn’t question my players’ decisions, I have a lot of trust in them,” said Napa. Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Volcano watch: Island fissures steaming, lake water receding Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew It wasn’t the start Jeff Napa wanted for the Letran Knights.ADVERTISEMENT Putin’s, Xi’s ruler-for-life moves pose challenges to West Report: Disney dropping the ‘Fox’ from movie studio names Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Charcos finished with 27 points in the Altas’ win, dropping 22 points in the first half, but the Knights still went into the break trailing by just one, 45-44.After a seesaw affair for much of the game, Letran was able to take the lead early in the fourth, 73-65.That, however, was the Knights’ final stand as they allowed the Altas to mount a 12-2 run and take a 77-73 lead off of Kim Aruin’s step back jumper with 1:35 left in the game.“It’s hard to make excuses for this game, there were many lapses like Charcos getting too comfortable,” said Napa. “We got a lead, we relaxed, and we lacked the finishing ability.”The Knights had a couple of chances in the last minute but Prince Eze denied both of those with blocks on Bong Quinto and JP Calvo.ADVERTISEMENT Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Palace OKs total deployment ban on Kuwait OFWs In fight vs corruption, Duterte now points to Ayala, MVP companies as ‘big fish’ LATEST STORIES For the complete collegiate sports coverage including scores, schedules and stories, visit Inquirer Varsity. Nadine Lustre’s phone stolen in Brazil MOST READ View comments
Workers at the government-run Ebola crematorium once operated by the Indian Community have threatened to cause a disruption by scattering the remains of Ebola victims on to the Robertsfield Highway if Government fails to pay their salaries.Speaking to the Daily Observer at the start of a six-month psychosocial counseling program, recently, one of the aggrieved crematorium workers, Robert Beer, noted that since government announced that there would be no more cremation of Ebola victims, crematorium workers were reportedly told to hold on until their benefits are determined. But since then, there has been no commitment from the government, said Beer.Since government stopped the burning of Ebola dead late December 2014 and regular burial practices were resumed, the men who carried out the cremation said they have not been paid a dime and government had allegedly owed them for two weeks.According to Beer, during the heat of the Ebola crisis, government pleaded with them to assist with the cremation of Ebola victims in order to stop the further spread of the disease.“It was because of sympathy and patriotism that we decided to join government in rendering our services. Unfortunately, since the virus is now becoming history the very people who were begging us have now abandoned us since November,” he charged.Beer said they were being paid US$200 weekly and used to cremate about 150 to 200 bodies a day. He stated that it was a risky job especially as it was done during the Rainy Season. He disclosed that most of them have been neglected by their families and are being stigmatized by some in the community. He added: “Then the government, too, which should provide us reintegration packages as well as counseling, chose to also neglect us.”Speaking during the opening of the counseling workshop, the chairman of Sengbe Psychotherapeutic Group, Inc, Dr. Kpangbala Sengbe, said after a crisis like that of the Ebola outbreak the psychosocial needs of the people affected should not be overlooked.Sengbe urged government and partners to provide adequate psychosocial counseling for affected communities, including the people of Boys Town.“The same way when people were sick they were taken to the ETUs and provided medical support is the same way communities affected by the Ebola and primitive cremation should be provided psychosocial services,” Sengbe stated.The counseling workshop was conducted by Sengbe Group, Inc. and Renewed Energy Serving Humanity (RESH).Also speaking, the general coordinator of RESH, Ernest G. Smith, said if the psychosocial and physical needs of the men, who took part in the cremating of the bodies are not met, there would be an emergence of mentally-disabled, criminal-minded people and violence in that community as a result of the trauma created by the burning of fellow human beings and the amount of money those men got used to which they are now demanding that they be paid.He applauded the Boys Town community dwellers for their resilience, further stressing that it is not an easy thing for one to lose their identity and be identified or labeled negatively“One reality that is outstanding is that this community deserves help and I am so proud of you that you guys did not sit and wait for the requisite help you deserve, rather you went out and scouted for the help you need,” he noted.The six-month psychosocial counseling is an initiative of Mr. Tibelrosa Summoh Tarponweh, lead Advocate and community advisor of the Boys Town Communities.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
– Commissioner wants probe, as questions raised over hiring of CCJ lawyerHer job includes providing legal advice to the Guyana Elections Commission (GECOM), but on Tuesday, Legal Advisor Excellence Dazzel’s tabling of a legal opinion requested by a Commissioner nevertheless landed her in hot water.GECOM’s lawyer before the CCJ, Stanley Marcus, SCThe legal advice pertains to the voter’s list that expired last month and was requested by Opposition nominated Commissioner Bibi Shadick. According to Government nominated Commissioner Desmond Trotman, the tabling of the opinion was done without the permission of the full Commission.According to Trotman, the matter is before the court. He noted that Shadick said she put together her request for an opinion since April, but added that there was no indication of a draft being formulated.While he admitted that any Commissioner could make a request from staff for something, acting on that request depends on the entire Commission meeting. He said the Chairman will eventually determine whether an investigation is warranted.But while Trotman had objections to the legal opinion being offered without the input of the Commission, he had no such issues with the unilateral hiring of Senior Counsel Stanley Marcus, who represented GECOM before the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ) in the case of Christopher Ram v the Attorney General of Guyana, the Leader of the Opposition and Joseph Harmon.GECOM’s Legal Officer Excellence Dazzel“The Commission as a body would not have made that decision, but the Chairman would have been the person to maybe advise that we go in that direction… I think it had to do with time, time constraints. So the Chairman, I believe, on behalf of the Commission, (acted),” Trotman said.“Shadick raised the question of payment (for the lawyer). And what the Chairman has said, is that no bill has been presented to the Commission so far. I think what happens is that each member of the legal fraternity names their own price,” he added, when asked how much was being paid to Marcus.GECOM CommissionerBibi ShadickMeanwhile, Shadick herself informed the media that despite the retention of Marcus by GECOM, questions about how much he is being paid are not being answered by the GECOM Chairman, retired Justice James Patterson.“I don’t know how much money he is getting, God knows. I have (been questioning), but I’m not getting any answers. And no decision was taken here, no discussion was done. So things are happening without the Commission having any idea,” Shadick said.
Boxing Day fixtures: All nine Premier League games live on talkSPORT REVEALED Lukaku bundles home his 20th Premier League goal for United Man United transfer news live: Haaland ‘wants a change’, two players off in January A few of you got this right! 🌟– @RvN1776 (26 games)– @Persie_Official (32 games)– Dwight Yorke (34 games) pic.twitter.com/MwUx628nug— Manchester United (@ManUtd) September 15, 2018It’s Ruud van Nistelrooy who tops these charts after the goal machine reached league goal no.20 in a staggering 26 games. He scored 150 goals in 95 appearances for the club overall!Fellow Dutchman Robin van Persie runs a close second having done it in 26 games while Dwight Yorke pips Lukaku to third spot with 20 goals in 34 Premier League games. REVEALED smart causal Where Ancelotti ranks with every Premier League boss for trophies won Latest Manchester United News silverware He achieved the feat in 39 games making him the fourth quickest Red Devils player to do it but which former stars did it quicker than the Belgian? possible standings RANKED 1 Which teams do the best on Boxing Day in the Premier League era? deals England’s most successful clubs of the past decade, according to trophies won Every current Premier League club’s best kit from the past decade gameday cracker He still has plenty to do before he can be considered one of the great Manchester United strikers but Romelu Lukaku achieved a landmark that suggests he can go on to achieve goalscoring greatness.Lukaku scored the opening goal in a 2-1 victory at Watford this weekend and it was a special strike as it marked his 20th Premier League goal in United colours. How the Premier League table could change after the Boxing Day fixtures Top nine Premier League free transfers of the decade
Des Newton has stepped down as Roscommon football manger, after less than a year in the job.The former Roscommon and Donegal player’s departure was confirmed by the county board, which will meet next week to begin the process of finding his successor.Roscommon lost to Galway in the Connacht Championship, but bounced back to defeat Armagh in the Qualifiers, before making their exit at the hands of Tyrone. He had been commuting to Roscommon from Dublin to manage the team. FORMER DONEGAL PLAYER QUITS AS ROSCOMMON MANAGER was last modified: September 12th, 2012 by BrendaShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)
ALAMEDA — NFL punters sometimes use “#ForTheBrand” on social media when one produces a highlight since they think of themselves as their own unique brand, a notion started by former Colts punter and current rambunctious media personality Pat McAfee.With the Raiders facing the Chiefs and one of the league’s most dangerous return men in Tyreek Hill on Sunday, rookie punter Johnny Townsend knows the brand is in danger.“He’s a terrorist for the brand,” Townsend said of Hill. “He’s obviously an …
The facial differences between us and Neanderthals amount to a slight matter of bone resorption during development.Neanderthal faces look a bit weird to us, but they could brag (were they here to weigh in on the discussion) that they are better built. There’s only a slight morphological process that separates our faces, Science Daily says. During development, we moderns have more osteoclasts (bone-absorbing cells) that resorb bone that was laid down. Neanderthals, by contrast, keep more of their facial bone. That’s why it looks a bit protruding to us. The only way we moderns could argue ours are better is by claiming, “less is more.” That’s pure subjective opinion.The paper in Nature Communications that talks about this indicates that the processes that lead to these variations are very slight, and even appear among modern humans. In “Ontogeny of the maxilla in Neanderthals and their ancestors,” Lacruz et al. state this about earlier studies:Differences in skull form among hominoids have been shown to arise prenatally and to be variably accentuated throughout postnatal life by divergences and differences in magnitudes among subsequent ontogenetic shape trajectories. With regard to Neanderthals and modern humans, most studies have used 3-D landmark analysis to represent ontogenetic growth. These allow vectors of ontogenetic changes in size and shape to be compared, but differences in vectors do not necessarily relate to differences in bone growth remodelling. Indeed it is possible that similar vectors could be achieved through quite different underlying bone growth activities and rates. Morphometric studies report the consequence of underlying growth processes rather than inform what these processes are. Such studies concluded that the postnatal trajectories of ontogenetic change in face shape do not differ among Neanderthal and modern humans skulls, but that there are differences in the rate of shape change. These findings are difficult to reconcile with the known differences among geographic groups of modern humans in cranial ontogenetic shape trajectories in that if modern humans differ among geographic groups, then at least some of these must also differ from Neanderthals. Another study found evidence that postnatal ontogenetic divergence exists between Neanderthal and modern human faces and this finding has been supported by a further study that compared modern human and Neanderthal mandibular ontogenetic trajectories. Thus, while the initial ontogenetic studies suggested no difference in craniofacial growth vectors of Neanderthals and modern humans, more recent works have indicated that these two groups differ and that significant differences are also found among living groups of modern humans.The authors conclude that there are enough differences in facial development between Neanderthals and moderns to classify them separately. The differences, however, appear to result from a slight shift in the activity of osteoblasts (bone-constructing cells) and osteoclasts (bone-absorbing cells) in the facial bones during a stage of development. Since both cells exist in both varieties of humans, it amounts to a bit of regulatory change in the ratio of the cells’ activities, not something improving fitness or survival.If anything, Neanderthals probably could chew better and sniff better than we moderns can. (Note: SH refers to specimens found in the Sima de los Huesos cave in Spain.)The finding of similar facial bone growth remodelling activity states in the growing and developing faces of Neanderthals and SH hominins has broader implications. The SH sample and Neanderthals share a constellation of derived midfacial, dental, mandibular and glenoid cavity features that participate in a functional masticatory complex. Both groups also share large floors of the nasal cavity and large palatal roofs. To generate the expanded nasal cavity in the SH hominins and Neanderthals, the nasal capsule is vertically expanded and an increased rate of remodelling of the nasal and oral components of the palate (greater resorption on the nasal floor and increased deposition on the oral lamina of the palate) likely increases downward and forward drift of this structure, resulting in larger nasopharyngeal airways earlier in development relative to H. sapiens. The forwardly placed mid face and nasal aperture coupled with an antero-inferior growth vector of the face may well have resulted in relatively more anterior positioning of prosthion and the tooth row en bloc with respect to the maxillary tuberosity, thus also generating the retromolar space characteristic of Neanderthals.Is this a possible explanation for the trouble moderns have with third molars (wisdom teeth)? Maybe the roomier Neanderthal jaw required fewer visits to the orthodontist.Darwin skeptics may take note that the authors stated as their aim, “Findings from this analysis are interpreted within developmental and evolutionary contexts.” Lacruz drops hints in Science Daily about his bias to want to classify Neanderthals as “different” from us, but then admits moderns have a lot of variety, too:“We always considered Neanderthals to be a very different category of hominin,” said Lacruz. “But in fact they share with older African hominins a similar facial growth pattern. It’s actually humans who are developmentally derived, meaning that humans deviated from the ancestral pattern. In that sense, the face that is unique is the modern human face, and the next phase of research is to identify how and when modern humans acquired their facial-growth development plan.”Moreover, Lacruz says, understanding the process of facial ontogeny can help explain the variation in facial size and shape among modern humans.The extra bone in their faces probably would have made Neanderthals more resistant to injury in their boxing matches.Evolutionists are straining at a gnat and swallowing a camel here. Neanderthals were strong, tall, brainy, intelligent, and skillful. They were probably the Corvettes of their day instead of the Yugos like us. The differences are so slight as to be meaningless in Darwinian terms. What’s more fit, the crow or the raven? Both are equally good. Good grief, evolutionists: stop the historical racism and tell us where the important things came from: osteoblasts, osteoclasts, the skeleton, the heart, the kidneys, the lungs, the liver, the pancreas, ATP synthase, digestion, sex, the nervous system, the immune system, the neuroendocrine system, muscles, hands, arms, upright posture, the brain, intelligence, language, aesthetics, the soul …ad infinitum.Notice, too, that evolutionists believe Neanderthals were successful for over 200,000 years independently, yet when encountering modern humans after all that time, were able to intermarry and have fertile offspring. Does that make any sense? It’s a tall tale, a whopper! It’s almost as bad as the one about fully human people inhabiting earth for half a million years but never learning to ride a horse. Why aren’t we laughing about this? This isn’t science; it’s a cult. Looking at the world’s leading “science” journal giving this respectable coverage, you see what happens when a cult gains power over reasonable people. (Visited 93 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
13 May 2014 The Cambridge Companion to Nelson Mandela, a new book examining how Mandela became an icon during his lifetime, the meanings and uses of his internationally recognisable image, and his legacy in the 21st century, was launched in Johannesburg last week. Featuring essays by experts in history, anthropology, jurisprudence, cinema, literature and visual studies, The Cambridge Companion takes an in-depth look at Mandela’s relation to “tradition” and “modernity”, the impact of his famous public appearances, the oscillation between Africanist and non-racial positions in South Africa, and the politics of gender and national sentiment. It concludes with a meditation on Mandela’s legacy in the 21st century and a detailed guide to further reading on the world-renowned leader. Speaking at book’s launch at the Nelson Mandela Foundation, Professor Achille Mbembe, a researcher from the Wits Institute for Social and Economic Research and a contributing author, said Mandela “was a major political thinker – a typical 20th century thinker – and the 20th century ended for us not in 1999, but when Mandela died. “The political questions he translated in his time are still valid today, but what are the new questions we could ask about him? Maybe we will never know him completely,” Mbembe said. Verne Harris, director of research at the foundation, said the book “examines how Mandela looked, how he presented and carried himself, and inspires ongoing debate about Mandela, modernity and tradition.” Mbongiseni Buthelezi, of the Centre for Law and Society at the University of Cape Town, spoke of the “spectre” of Mandela and the project of freedom. “What are the questions Mandela allows us to ask, and which ones do we need to ask now? What future do we have without Mandela? “One of the angers and hurts people feel is how we maintained the status quo during the apartheid era, and how we are dealing with reconciliation in terms of our difficult past and post-Mandela,” Buthelezi said. Also at the launch werestruggle veterans Ahmed Kathrada and George Bizos, both long-standing friends of Mandela. Bizos spoke fondly of Mandela, saying it was important for the country that Mandela’s memory be preserved because he genuinely cared about people. “We know that his memory will live forever, but before we say that we will follow in his footsteps, let us first inform ourselves where his footsteps would have been. It might not have been in the way that some purport it to be,” Bizos said. The Cambridge Companion to Nelson Mandela, published by Cambridge University Press, was edited by Rita Barnard, a professor in English and comparative literature at the University of Pennsylvania and publisher of extensive literature on South African politics. SAinfo reporter
2 March 2015The Amajimbos, the South African national under-17 team, went down 2-0 to Mali in the 2015 CAF African Youth Championship final in Niamey, Niger, on Sunday night – but coach Molefi Ntseki said he was happy with his charges’ performance despite the defeat.It was a high-tempo game that saw the physically bigger Malians using their imposing stature to dictate the pace, although the Amajimbos gave as much as they received for the full 90 minutes.Stand-out goalkeeper Mondli Mpoto and defender Reeve Frosler were in the thick of action from the word go and came to the rescue of the South Africans as the West Africans sought for an early goal.Gilt-edged chancesIt was a physical first half with Amajimbos handling aerial balls well but Mali keeping up the pressure. Despite going to half-time goalless, both teams created gilt-edged chances.After some constant pressure at the start of the second half, the Malians took the lead thanks to striker Siaka Bagayoko in the 65th minute.Mpoto had made a number of saves to keep South Africa in the game, with one in particularly impressive, while the Malians also missed several chances with shots that went wide.It was game over in the 78th minute when Aly Malle doubled Mali’s lead with a curling that shot that gave Mpoto no chance.The Malians showed superior physical dominance and endurance, the Amajimbos never gave up and they kept on pushing to the end.South Africa had a Khanyiso Mayo goal ruled out for offside in the 88th minute, following good work by the lively Sibongakonke Mbatha.Amajimbos end as runners-up, with Guinea claiming third place earlier on Sunday after beating Nigeria 3-1 in the play offs.“On another day, the result could have been different. They bullied us off the ball but we always threatened on counter-attacks. We will now focus our attention to the World Cup in Chile. I am proud of the boys,” he said.Amajimbos XI: Mpoto, Ngcobo, Frosler, Mohamme, Mukumela, Dlala, Meyiwa, Maluleke (c), Mbatha, Mkatshana, Mayo.Mali XI: Traore, Dante, Bagayoko, Sangare, I. Traore, Mamadou Fofana, Koita, Malle. Maiga, B. Traore.Source: South African Football Association
When it comes to geographic location, transit demand and supply appear to follow certain spatial patterns. Unsurprisingly, transit supply is highest in city centers and decreases as distance from city centers increases. As a result, transit deserts do not typically occur in city centers or near downtown. In fact, because of the typical “hub and spoke” design of many transit services, city centers often have transit surpluses where supply outstrips demand.The location of transit deserts often does not follow a geographic pattern, although they are usually associated with low-income and remote areas. While planners and engineers may have a rough idea of where supply is low, making service adjustments requires measuring and mapping of transit supply and demand citywide. By JUNFENG JIAO and NICOLE McGRATHAs any commuter who has experienced unreliable service or lives miles away from a bus stop will tell you, sometimes public transit isn’t really a viable option, even in major cities.In our car-loving society, where 85% of Americans use a car to get to work, people who cannot access transportation are excluded from their own communities and trapped inside “transit deserts.” This term, which one of us (Junfeng Jiao) coined, describes areas in a city where demand for transit is high but supply is low.Lack of transit has harmful effects on those who rely on public transit — generally, people who are too young, too old, too poor, or have disabilities that don’t allow them to drive. Mapping these deserts will help agencies adjust transit services and better serve their communities.At the University of Texas-Austin’s Urban Information Lab, our research focuses on refining the methods used to quantify and measure transit supply and demand. We’ve developed clear and concise geographic information system (GIS) methods to evaluate transportation systems, providing alternatives to previous, more complicated network modeling. These methods can quickly be applied to any location, as we have shown in studies of five major cities in Texas and other cities across the United States. By using this method, we found that hundreds of thousands of transit-dependent people in Texas don’t have access to mass transit systems. RELATED ARTICLES Rebalancing transit networksMany cities are now making service adjustments to improve service to transit deserts. For example, Houston’s transit authority, METRO, recently redesigned its bus service as part of a larger “Transit Service Reimagining,” in an attempt to better meet the region’s mobility needs. Evaluation of the new transit services shows that current levels of transit demand and supply are more balanced, though gaps still exist.Identifying transit deserts is even catching on at the federal level. The U.S. Department of Transportation recently launched a new initiative to map transit deserts nationally through a National Transit Map, which will put together data from different transit agencies into a complete feed. By accessing a larger, national look at transit demand and supply, regional agencies will have extra tools available to them when making changes to their local transit services.What these changes will be is hard to say. Expanding existing bus services may be the most cost-effective way to improve transit access. Even in New York City, with its massive subway system, city officials are increasingly turning to bus rapid transit due to the high cost of adding new subway lines.Adding bus lines, increasing service hours, and even streamlining boarding and fares can help improve service and increase access. Integrating bicycling with transit services would be another cost-effective option.As research on transit deserts continues to grow, more precise methods of quantifying the gap between transit supply and demand should develop. More research may provide new views on how the built environment and socioeconomic variables affect transportation accessibility. With careful planning and investment, these transit deserts can eventually transform into transit oases. Beyond city centersCurrent research shows that transit deserts exist all over the country. Cities such as Chicago; Cincinnati; Charlotte; North Carolina; Portland, Oregon; and San Antonio contain multiple communities that don’t have enough transit services to meet existing demand. Even in older cities, where development tends to follow transit lines, there are neighborhoods where the supply of transit is simply not enough.This is a large-scale problem. In San Antonio, the seventh-largest U.S. city by population, some 334,530 people — nearly one-fourth of the population — need access to public transportation in a city that doesn’t even have rail service. In Chicago, where there are high levels of transit dependency all across the city, just three of the transit desert neighborhoods that we identified house approximately 176,806 residents. Even in a city as progressive as Portland, Oregon, thousands live in transit desert neighborhoods.Transit desert analysis for the city of San Antonio. Negative numbers connote areas where demand for transit exceeds supply. Why Is the U.S. Unwilling to Pay for Good Public Transportation?Getting Around Without Fossil FuelsLocation EfficiencyGreen Building Priority #4 — Reduce the Need for DrivingHouses Versus CarsResilient Communities Connecting people to jobs and servicesResearch shows that low-income residents living in sprawling areas have limited transportation options, which constrains their job opportunities and upward mobility. Inadequate transportation keeps people from finding work, which then reduces the productivity of their communities. It also can limit access to medical services, causing health problems to go undetected or worsen.Addressing transit access is one important strategy for tackling broader social problems. For example, welfare recipients are less likely to own cars or have access to transit than the general population. Reducing these transportation barriers would help move them from welfare to work.Although scholars have been studying “food deserts” (areas where residents lack access to nutritious food) for several decades, we have only recently applied this logic to mass transportation systems, despite the fact that food deserts often occur due to lack of transportation.Relatively little research has been carried out to identify and quantify gaps between transit demand and supply. But as counties and cities feel the effects of declining funding from federal and state transportation user fees, they need new ways to target transportation infrastructure investments and ensure limited resources are used in the best way possible. We have found that maps are a promising way to guide these discussions. Mapping transit desertsDetermining exactly who relies on mass transit can be difficult. Existing information depends on census data. As previously noted, people who rely on transit are usually from marginalized demographic groups. They may be elderly, poor, or have disabilities that keep them from driving. Census data do not account for the fact that sometimes these populations overlap (a transit-dependent person could be old as well as poor), so one individual could be counted many times.Also, census data on car ownership are not available at the census block group level, which is the smallest geographic unit published by the U.S. Census Bureau. This lack of data makes it hard to measure transit dependency with accuracy.Measuring transit supply is easier. It relies on data from municipal planning agencies as well as relevant municipal and county GIS departments, which manage spatial and geographic information, analysis tools, and mapping products. These agencies measure variables that include number of transit stops, transit routes, and frequency of service, as well as lengths of sidewalks, bicycle lanes, and low speed-limit routes (which are relevant because some commuters may opt to walk instead of taking the bus). Junfeng Jiao is an assistant professor of community and regional planning and director of the Urban Information Lab at the University of Texas at Austin. Nicole McGrath is a master’s degree candidate in community and regional planning at UT at Austin. This post originally appeared at The Conversation.