December 20

Good guy show: 49ers’ Sanders explains quick kinship with Garoppolo

first_imgSANTA CLARA — Emmanuel Sanders’ instant chemistry with Jimmy Garoppolo is easily evident, what with two touchdowns in two games for the still-unbeaten 49ers.It goes beyond those scores, however.“We’ve got a lot of similarities in general, just in who we are as human beings,” Samuel said. “That transitions over to the football field.”Jimmy Garoppolo (10) high-fives Emmanuel Sanders (17) after a touchdown by the 49ers’ Tevin Coleman (26) against the Carolina Panthers at Levi’s Stadium on …last_img read more

December 19

Mad Scientists Poised on the Slippery Slope

first_imgStem cells can do good or harm, depending on their source.  When scientists think themselves above ethics, watch out.Adult Stem Cell NewsAdult stem cells (AS) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) are safe and effective ways to treat a variety of diseases, ethically neutral because they are not derived from human embryos.The first clinical trial with iPS is drawing near, Science Now reported.  In Japan, they will be used to treat age-related macular degeneration.  PhysOrg states this will give hope to millions of elderly people robbed of their sight.  Before iPS, the only way to harvest stem cells was from embryos, the article said, a process that is “controversial because it requires the destruction of the embryo, a process to which religious conservatives, among others, object,” implying that liberals have less a problem with destroying human embryos.Speaking of blindness, adult stem cells derived from body fat may help treat retinopathy, “a complication of diabetes that threatens the vision of millions,” Medical Xpress reported.  Since “everybody has extra fat,” this alternative treatment can garner an abundance of source material while being gentler on the eye.  “”Most importantly, you can obtain them from the same donor as you would be injecting into, so it’s autologous therapy, meaning you don’t need to worry about the body’s immune response.”Researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology have found a faster way to isolate iPS cells, Live Science reported, based on their stickiness.  This will allow “scientists to experiment with a greater number of cells at a time and thereby speeding progress toward potential medical therapies.”Science Magazine reported progress with growing entire tissues, such as portions of the intestine, from stem cells embedded in a patient’s own tissues.  A single intestinal stem cell can develop into a “mini-gut” with folds and all. “Because biopsies taken from live donors can serve as the tissue source, this approach could solve ethical and logistical issues associated with organ transplantation and may represent a safe complement to embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cell–based strategies.”Embryonic Stem Cells and CloningScientists know that experimentation on human embryos is “controversial” and raises “ethical issues,” yet many of them continue to lust after embryonic stem cells (ES) and, even more shocking, want to work on human cloning and human-animal chimeras.Science Magazine asked, “Does Cloning Produce Better Embryonic Stem Cells?“, implying that if they do, scientists would want to use them.  Nothing was said about ethics in the article.  Shoukhrat Mitalipov, the researcher at University of Oregon who recently claimed to have cloned human embryos (see 5/13/13), is arguing that “cloned human embryonic stem cells may have some advantages over other cells.”  That is a completely pragmatic argument that dodges whether scientists should pursue their use.Nature printed the views of two researchers in the Netherlands who, while applauding Mitalipov’s achievement, advocate sticking with iPS cells and improving them instead of tinkering with human embryos by harvesting eggs. (Note: their views are not necessarily those of the editors of Nature.)In our opinion, the discovery in 2006 that differentiated adult cells can be directly reprogrammed to a stem-cell-like state called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells was a more significant breakthrough for this research field. iPS cells can be generated by introducing just four transcription factors into differentiated cells of an individual, without the need for the ethically sensitive step of creating embryos from oocytes as intermediates…. Indeed, many laboratories now routinely generate iPS cells from patients, bypassing the practical and regulatory difficulties associated with obtaining human oocytes.Hybrids and ChimerasOn the path to the mad scientist in H. G. Wells’  The Island of Dr. Moreau, some researchers lust to mix human and animal tissue into “chimera” organisms.  New Scientist discussed this ethical dilemma in an article, “Human-animal hybrids mean boom time for bioethicists.”  It’s not talking about implanting a pig heart valve into a patient, but something more sinister.  The UK has some ethics guidelines about what can and cannot be done:Two years ago, the UK Academy of Medical Sciences released a groundbreaking report on “animals containing human material“. It concluded that most research on chimeras is permitted by existing UK laws. But it also identified some experiments that should not (yet) be done because of strong ethical objections. One is to breed an animal that has human sperm or eggs. Another is to create a non-human primate with a humanised brain.That qualifier “(yet)” is worrisome.  What ethical standards will govern future experimenters, particularly if it becomes very profitable or leads to pragmatic breakthroughs to save lives?  New Scientist said that Japan is already “very” close to crossing the boundaries of the UK standards. One can already hear the pragmatists arguing that human-animal hybrids made from pigs or primates will provide all kinds of benefits (not the least of which, money for the profiteers):All of which leads to the unsurprising conclusion that the ultimate aim of this research – to provide desperately needed human organs for transplantation – can only be achieved if serious ethical and technical hurdles are surmounted. We are rapidly approaching those ethical hurdles…. Of course, any ethical concerns must be weighed against the potential benefits for human health and life. An entire generation of bioethicists may not be needed, but there is still plenty of work to be done.Complications of  Crossing Ethical LinesAt the end of June, Nature published a historical story ripe for pitting ethicists against pragmatists.  A stem cell line generated from an aborted fetus in 1962 has been used to to create vaccines that have saved many lives.  Unlike stem cells from diseased individuals, the “normal” cells from this Wi-38 stem cell line, derived from the “legal abortion,” is “the most extensively described and studied normal human cells available to this day.”  Here’s the ethical dilemma:Vaccines made using WI-38 cells have immunized hundreds of millions of people against rubella, rabies, adenovirus, polio, measles, chickenpox and shingles. In the 1960s and 1970s, the cells helped epidemiologists to identify viral culprits in disease outbreaks. Their normality has made them valuable control cells for comparison with diseased ones. And at the Wistar Institute, as in labs and universities around the world, they remain a leading tool for probing the secrets of cellular ageing and cancer.“Here’s a clump of cells that has had an enormous impact on human health,” says Paul Offit, chief of the division of infectious diseases at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. “These cells from one fetus have no doubt saved the lives of millions of people.”The article went on to describe the money trail from the WI-38 cell line.  The scientist who obtained them, Leonard Hayflick, started selling access to them, earning $90,000, leading to debates about how scientists should profit from human cells.  (The money went to lawyers because of ensuing legal squabbles over the cells.)  Even more troubling, “the WI-38 strain has helped to generate billions of dollars for companies that produce vaccines based on the cells, yet it seems that the parents of the fetus have earned nothing.”  But should they, if they chose to abort? In what kind of society does someone earn money for killing?The “ends justify the means” pragmatic arguments weaken when considering that other methods could have sufficed to save lives. Vaccines obviously existed well before 1962. “Other vaccines are produced in a completely morally non-objectionable way,” one pro-life activist argued.  “So why aren’t we doing this with all vaccines?”For 40 years, anti-abortion activists have protested against the use of WI-38 and vaccines developed from it. “It’s still a live issue,” says Alta Charo, a professor of law and bioethics at the University of Wisconsin Law School in Madison. “We still have people who refuse to take these vaccines because of their origins in fetal tissue.”But what if those people weren’t around?It appears that Hayflick preferred the fetal cells because he believed they had less exposure to viruses than adult cells.  He reasoned that if nothing were done with the fetal cells made available to him, they would end up in the incinerator – thus the pragmatic argument.  Is this not the same as salvaging organs from a car accident fatality victim?  But what if such pragmatic moves create a market for engineering car accidents?It’s telling that Nature should have focused exclusively on possible injustices to Hayflick and the parents of the aborted baby (the “tissue donors”).  Hayflick himself seems blind to the real victim:Hayflick argues that there are at least four stakeholders with title to WI-38 or any human cell culture: the tissue donors, the scientists whose work gave it value, the scientists’ institution and the body that funded the work. “Like me”, he adds, “hundreds of other scientists had their careers advanced using WI-38 and other human cell cultures so we all owe a moral debt to the tissue donors.”Clearly, though, the most unjustly treated individual was the aborted baby, who had no opportunity for life or liberty to give its consent to sacrifice its life for others.  If there had been no pressure from pro-lifers throughout the 50 years since the abortion, it’s doubtful the scientists, pharmaceutical companies and lawyers would have many ethical qualms with the use of fetal tissue, those “clumps of cells” that are so very useful and profitable.Ever since science as an institution cut itself loose from the moorings of religion, it has floundered aimlessly on a sea of pragmatism, anchored on nothing but Darwinian self-interest.  Morality requires the presupposition that certain things are eternally right or wrong.  How can a Darwinist ground ethics in a universe where everything evolves? One can feel the tension in these articles.  The scientists have self-interest and motivation for money or fame to do anything they can in the name of science, but are troubled by their consciences and fear of upsetting funding sources who might be listening to the pro-life activists who believe in the sanctity of human life (a Biblical world view).  Pragmatic arguments can be very strong.  Scientists can rationalize about human health and lives that could be saved by the new technologies.  Take away conscience (which Darwinism can do) and political opposition, and they stand on the edge of the slippery slope.The atrocities possible in a world down the slope are very real.  They not only can happen; they have happened.  Who cannot remember with horror the “medical experiments” committed in Nazi Germany by well-known scientists?  Experiments were done not just on living prisoners, but on the corpses coming from the death camps.  The scientists justified some of that work on the grounds that they didn’t do the killing; they were just taking good advantage of a bad situation.  Compare that with what Hayflick and the scientific institutions did.  Hey; the abortion was legal, wasn’t it?  Didn’t the government legislate it as ethical at the time?  Pragmatism teases rationalization.  “Hey, I didn’t kill the fetus; don’t blame me!  I’m doing something good with the tissue!”  Enough of that line of thinking, and abortion increases – justified on the grounds that mothers are helping “science” by sacrificing their children to the new Moloch.There are Darwinian bioethicists.  They are useless.  On what basis would they say “no” to anything the scientific institutions and pharmaceutical companies want?   The only people keeping a leash on the mad scientists of our day are those who can ground their ethics in unchanging morality – particularly, Christians and Jews who believe in the holy, righteous, just transcendent Creator God of the Bible, who gave mankind the Ten Commandments.  That leash must hold.Resources for thinking about the limits of the ethically possible in a Darwinian world:Darwin Day in America by John West; provides many other historical examples of ethics set adrift by Darwinian thinking.The Magician’s Twin: C. S. Lewis on Science, Scientism and Society from the Discovery Institute details Lewis’s fears about godless scientism.That Hideous Strength by C. S. Lewis: a novel about a modern scientific Babel using science to destroy humanness. (Visited 13 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

December 19

TB vaccine in SA clinical trial

first_imgA doctor examining chest X-rays at aTB clinic in Cape Town. (Image: USDepartment of State official blog) Educational poster for TB, publishedby TB Care in Cape Town.(Image: World Lung Foundation) A rural health clinic, where patients aretreated for, among others, TB. (Image:Damien Schumann, World Lung Foundation)Janine ErasmusSouth Africa is the setting for a phase II clinical trial of an advanced new tuberculosis vaccine. The trial is to be conducted by the non-profit Aeras Global TB Vaccine Foundation, which is supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Its local partner is the South African Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative (Satvi), based at Cape Town University. Satvi is the largest dedicated TB vaccine research group in Africa.Currently there is only one TB vaccine available worldwide – the Bacille Calmette-Guérin or BCG vaccine, developed back in 1921. This is the drug administered to infants at birth. With TB evolving in recent years into drug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant strains, the almost century-old BCG is no longer as effective as it once was.According to Aeras, the BCG vaccine provides protection against severe forms of infant TB but cannot be relied upon for the adult form of the disease. Since TB is most prevalent in adults it is imperative that a vaccine be developed that is effective in combating all strains of TB, including drug-resistant versions. BCG is the most widely-administered vaccine in the world, says Aeras, but still the TB burden is increasing.According to Tony Hawkridge of Satvi, BCG is also dangerous for those suffering from Aids, and may also be unsafe for HIV-positive patients. This is because BCG is a live vaccine that may further compromise an already-weakened immune system.However, the new vaccine works alongside BCG and is intended to enhance the body’s immune response, which will have already been activated by the administration of BCG. It does this by using a protein from the pathogen, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium, to boost production of T-cells, a type of white blood cell that defends the body against infection.Collaborative effortAeras is also working with the Oxford-Emergent Tuberculosis Consortium in development of the new vaccine. This is a collaborative effort between researchers at Oxford University and US-based Emergent BioSolutions, a pharmaceutical company that specialises in the development of vaccines against killer diseases such as anthrax, botulism, tuberculosis, typhoid, and hepatitis B.The new vaccine, known as MVA85A/AERAS-485, was developed by Wellcome Trust senior research fellow Dr Helen McShane and her team at Oxford’s Jenner Institute. McShane commented that this is the first experimental TB vaccine to advance to phase II of a clinical trial in more than 80 years.“It’s the first of new-generation TB vaccines to go into this kind of study looking at efficacy in infants,” she said. “It’s enormously exciting, and I sincerely hope we will see some efficacy.”The cost of the study is estimated at US$14-million (R124-million) and will be carried by Aeras and the Wellcome Trust, a UK-based charity that funds biomedical research around the world. Previous trial phases have already been carried out South Africa and the Gambia, with promising results.The trial, which involves some 2 750 South African children, will be based at the Brewelskloof TB Hospital in Worcester, Western Cape. Researchers are currently in the process of selecting the participating infants. All children will already have received BCG at birth, as is the standard practice, and at 18 weeks half of them will get MVA85A while the other half will be given a placebo.According to McShane, the team is hoping for at least a 60% reduction in the incidence of pulmonary TB among children who receive the vaccine, compared with children who get the placebo. She added that initial results may be available as early as 2011 or 2012.“There is still a long road ahead,” remarked Aeras CEO Jerald Sadoff, “but this marks an important milestone toward the goal of a more effective TB vaccine.”“We believe this is the most exciting advance in the field of TB vaccines for over 80 years,” said McShane. “We have shown that this vaccine is safe and stimulates strong immune responses. This trial will hopefully show that the vaccine can protect people from getting TB and enable the global community to begin to control this devastating disease.”Global scourgeThe World Health Organisation (WHO) reports that about one third of the planet’s entire population is infected with TB. Despite the fact that TB is treatable and curable, of these roughly 2-billion people about 1.8-million succumb to the disease every year. A large number of them are children.TB is also a major killer of people with HIV and Aids, according to the WHO. There are about 33-million people living with HIV, of whom about a third are also infected with TB. Because their immune systems are weakened by the primary infection, around 90% of these people die within two to three months of contracting TB – unless they are treated.The incidence of TB is widespread in South Africa, and each year another 250 000 new cases are recorded in the country. According to Satvi, South Africa carries the seventh highest TB burden of all countries. Approximately 80 people die of the disease in South Africa every day, a figure that has been accelerated by the concurrent HIV epidemic.With 25% of all cases but only 10% of the population, the Western Cape is the hardest-hit by TB, which is one of the reasons the trial is taking place in that province.Between 15% and 20% of TB cases in South Africa are children. These young patients have contracted TB only recently, which demonstrates that current TB control measures are not doing what they should.Extensive testingNo medicine can be released for public consumption without undergoing extensive clinical trials, which are conducted on human subjects over a period of time. A clinical trial can only be started once sufficient preliminary information has been collected on the non-clinical properties of the medication or device, and permission has been obtained from the health authority in the country where it is to take place.There are several phases to a clinical trial, which can take years to complete.The pre-trial phase involves in vivo and in vitro testing to gather initial data on efficacy, toxicity and the body’s interaction with the drug. Only once all this data has been evaluated is the decision made on whether or not the product merits further testing.Phase 0 involves a trial with very small doses on just a few subjects to gather data on the interaction between the body and the drug or device.Phase I involves administration of the device or drug to a slightly larger group of patients. If the product is a drug, subjects are given a range of doses so that the most effective therapeutic dose can be established, although this is still a lesser dose than that which causes adverse effects in animals. Patients are typically healthy volunteers.Phase II extends phase one, with a bigger group of patients or volunteers. This is the make-or-break stage for a drug, as it often happens that during this period patients will show negative side effects, or the drug or device will not work as well as hoped.If, during the initial phases, a product proves itself to be effective and safe, it will pass into phase III, which is considered the definitive assessment phase of the safety and effectiveness of a drug or device. Subject groups of up to 3 000 are involved. This is usually the longest and most expensive phase of testing and having successfully proven itself, sometimes in more than one phase III trial, the drug or device is submitted for regulatory approval. Once approval has been obtained, the manufacturer may begin to market the product.Phase IV sees continuing monitoring of the product and ongoing technical support once the product is on the market.Do you have queries or comments about this article? Contact Janine Erasmus at [email protected] articlesSaving more lives from TB, fasterSA, US join to fight tuberculosisTB diagnosis breakthroughUseful linksAeras Global TB World Health Organisation – TBBill & Melinda Gates FoundationWellcome TrustOxford-Emergent Tuberculosis ConsortiumEmergent BioSolutionsOxford UniversityJenner Institute – OxfordThe International Clinical Trials Registry Platformlast_img read more

December 16

Air Flow Pathways in a Leaky Exterior Wall

first_imgThe leaking air was moving laterally through the battNow, let’s focus in on where the dirt appeared in this batt. Let’s observe. See that part in the red box (Image #3, below)? That indicates air was moving laterally across the stud cavity in the wall. What?!Yes, it’s true. When I first looked at the batt, that pattern didn’t stand out. I saw it only later when I looked at the exterior wall sheathing and saw the pattern repeated there. See the band of dust near the bottom of the cavity in Image #4, below? That’s where the fiberglass batt picked up that band of dirt in the red box in the previous photo.But how is air moving laterally across the stud cavities? Well, we know that air needs two things to move: a pressure difference and a pathway. It also likes to take pathways with lower resistance. So that band of dust on the sheathing is a pathway of lower resistance. You can see the pathway better in Image #5, below.The fiberboard sheathing is bucklingThe sheathing that I discovered in the wall is asphalt-impregnated fiberboard, commonly referred to as Celotex, one of its primary manufacturers. It’s not as stiff as plywood or OSB, and you can see below that it’s not lying flat against the studs. Those gaps create pathways.OK, that explains air moving inside the cavity, but is it connected with air outside the building enclosure? Some people think just the presence of fiberglass is the problem. They’re wrong. The answer is shown in the Image #6, below. The seam between two pieces of fiberboard is open. You can even see what’s on the other side: the brick veneer.It looks like that nail missed the stud. It was probably OK at first, but over the past 46 years, the fiberboard has distorted through a whole lot of wetting and drying cycles. The result is a hole in our building enclosure. And there are more holes everywhere two pieces of the fiberboard meet and at the top and bottom of the wall. That adds up to a lot of leakage area.Where’s the WRB?Also, the fact that I can see the brick veneer on the outside of the building means there’s no drainage plane. No felt. No house wrap. No nothing between the fiberboard and brick. Fortunately, I haven’t found widespread moisture damage resulting from this. (The termite damage is an indication of moisture but it was isolated to the two sides of the window.)How do you fix this? You’ve got several options. You could ignore the problem and put it back together the way you found it. You could spray-foam the whole thing. You could seal the gaps and install fiberglass batts again. I’ll show you my solution next time.By the way, demolishing a bathroom by yourself is a heck of a lot of work. I hauled out 47 bags of debris and a few larger items. The good news is that by the time my wife returned home the following week, I was done with 98% of the demolition. The last photo shows what she found when she walked in there expecting to find the same bathroom she’d left the week before.Lead-safe work practicesNow let me end with a caveat. If your home was built before 1978, it probably has lead paint in it. If you’re doing the work as a homeowner, you’re not subject to the rules of the Renovation, Repair, and Painting (RRP) Program, which applies to contractors, but you you should still work safely. Here are their lead guidelines for do-it-yourselfers. I followed them pretty closely when I was doing the demolition in my bathroom. Allison Bailes of Decatur, Georgia, is a speaker, writer, building science consultant, and the author of the Energy Vanguard Blog. Check out his in-depth course, Mastering Building Science at Heatspring Learning Institute, and follow him on Twitter at @EnergyVanguard. This spring I spent a lot of hours in my bathroom. I was sick. Really. I was sick and tired of having an outdated bathroom that was falling apart. So when my wife hit the road one Monday in late April to drive across the country, I got out my wrecking bar. The lead photo shows what it looked like at the end of my first full day of demolition.I opened up the plumbing wall first. Lots of fun stuff, there. But the real fun came when I opened up the exterior wall. The four termite-damaged studs were part of that fun, but something else was even better.Yogi Berra once said, “You can observe a lot by just watching.” So when I got into the exterior wall, I watched. I live in the Atlanta area in a condo built in 1970. Air leakage hadn’t been discovered yet back then, but that doesn’t mean it wasn’t happening. Check out that fiberglass batt (first two images below) from the exterior wall.Do you see what I see? The black parts are where the fiberglass captured dirt. The dirt was traveling in air that was moving in the wall. Fiberglass is a great indicator of air leakage, and most of the fiberglass manufacturers make it easy for us to see the dirt. They make their product in light colors: pink, yellow, white. (There’s a new trend toward brown fiberglass, though, which isn’t helpful for spotting air leakage. But hey, we’re making airtight houses now, right?) RELATED ARTICLESQuestions and Answers About Air BarriersOne Air Barrier or Two?Is OSB Airtight?Airtight Wall and Roof SheathingBlower Door BasicsPinpointing Leaks With a Fog MachineAir Leakage Through Spray Polyurethane FoamGetting the Biggest Bang for Your Air-Sealing BuckAir-Sealing Tapes and GasketsAir Sealing With Sprayable Caulk New Air Sealing Requirements in the IRCNavigating Energy Star’s Thermal Bypass ChecklistVideo Series: Attic Air SealingGBA Encyclopedia: Air BarriersGBA Encyclopedia: Addressing Air LeaksManaging Lead Paint Hazardslast_img read more

November 30

Smalling defends himself after England omission

first_imgDon’t miss out on the latest news and information. “Was I surprised? Yes, I was,” Smalling said on Tuesday of his omission, speaking at United’s news conference ahead of its Champions League game against Basel.“But you don’t play for one of the biggest clubs in the world for as long as I have and probably won the most trophies bar the Champions League without being able to do everything a top defender needs to do, be it playing or defending.”FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSSEA Games: Philippines picks up 1st win in men’s water poloSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutSmalling, who has played 31 games for England, started the season behind Phil Jones and Eric Bailly, and has played more in the Premier League only in recent weeks because of injuries.“This year, as a team, we’ve got one of the best defensive records,” Smalling said, “and we have done for the last few years and I’m very proud to be part of that. Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH Kammuri turning to super typhoon less likely but possible — Pagasa Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles02:11Makabayan bloc defends protesting workers, tells Año to ‘shut up’01:47Panelo casts doubts on Robredo’s drug war ‘discoveries’01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice MOST READ Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC “While I’m playing under Jose (Mourinho) and he’s happy and I’m playing regularly, then I’m happy with that.”Smalling is confident of forcing his way into Southgate’s plans for the World Cup in Russia.“While I’m playing regularly here and part of a very successful team I think that should show come the summer,” Smalling said. “I don’t really feel like I need to prove anything to Gareth.“Like I said, I play for one of the most successful managers in Jose and he’s only going to pick the best players. While I’m playing regularly and he’s happy I think, if my season carries on like this and we have a successful season and our team continues to concede very few goals, then I think it gives him maybe no choice in the summer but to pick me.”ADVERTISEMENT Read Next QC cops nab robbery gang leader, cohortcenter_img LATEST STORIES Stronger peso trims PH debt value to P7.9 trillion FIFA bans 3 soccer officials for life for taking bribes CPP denies ‘Ka Diego’ arrest caused ‘mass panic’ among S. Tagalog NPA Manchester United’s Chris Smalling speaks during a press conference the day before the Champions League Group A soccer match between Switzerland’s FC Basel 1893 and England’s Manchester United FC at the St. Jakob-Park stadium in Basel, Switzerland, on Tuesday, Nov. 21, 2017. (Georgios Kefalas/Keystone via AP)BASEL, Switzerland — Manchester United defender Chris Smalling says he has nothing to prove to England manager Gareth Southgate after being dropped by the national team and having his ability publicly questioned.Smalling was overlooked for England’s recent friendly games against Germany and Brazil, with Southgate picking younger players and saying he wanted his team to move toward a style of “using the ball from the back and building up in a certain way.”ADVERTISEMENT Kris Aquino ‘pretty chill about becoming irrelevant’ Japan ex-PM Nakasone who boosted ties with US dies at 101 View commentslast_img read more